General Wave Properties

General Wave Properties (O Level)

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Question 1
In a ripple tank experiment, a vibrator dips into a liquid at a constant frequency. Which are the possible waveforms? 1
A
1 and 2 only
B
2 and 3 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2 and 3
Question 1 Explanation: 
The ripples are created based on the weak bonding between the liquid particles. When the first particle is excited by the dipper, it will start to oscillate up and down continuously. It is not possible to see a break in between waves in the case of choices 2 and 3.
Question 2
A single pulse of wave is created on a rope as shown. What are the possible directions of motion of the wave? 2
A
1 and 2 only
B
3 and 4 only
C
1, 2 and 3 only
D
1, 2 and 4 only
Question 2 Explanation: 
The particles of the ropes are moving in the 3 and 4 direction but the direction of wave (where the crest and trough seems to be moving) must be along the rope.
Question 3
A source produces both a longitudinal wave and transverse wave. The difference between the longitudinal wave and a transverse wave is the
A
frequency of the source.
B
direction of the waves.
C
speed of the waves.
D
wavelength of the waves.
Question 3 Explanation: 
Longitudinal waves are waves which travel in a direction parallel to the direction of the vibrations. Transverse waves are waves which travel in a direction perpendicular to the vibrations. For a given source, the transverse wave and the longitudinal wave would travel in direction 90o from each other.
Question 4
A point P is marked on a rope before the rope is set to oscillate. At the particular instance shown below, what is the direction of movement of the point P? 4
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Question 4 Explanation: 
As the transverse wave passes the point P, the point P will move up and down perpendicular to the wave direction. The dotted wave shows the future new wave and P’ is the new position of point P after the wave moves a little more to the right. Point P is going downwards.
Question 5
A point P is marked on a rope before the rope is set to oscillate. At the particular instance shown below, what is the direction of movement of the point P? 5
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Question 5 Explanation: 
As the transverse wave passes the point P, the point P will move up and down perpendicular to the wave direction. The dotted wave shows the future new wave and P’ is the new position of point P after the wave moves a little more to the left. Point P is going upwards.
Question 6
A duckweed plant floats on water. A stone is dropped some distance away from the duckweed and produces ripples travelling towards the duckweed. Where will the duckweed be after the transverse wave has passed the duckweed as shown? 6
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Question 6 Explanation: 
The transverse wave will cause the duckweed to oscillate up and down perpendicular to the direction of the wave. After the transverse wave has passed, the duckweed will still be at its original position.
Question 7
Which of the following is the speed of a transverse wave?
A
The speed of a particle on the wave
B
The speed of the crest
C
The speed of the compression
D
Wavelength ÷ Time taken for a wave to travel from one point to another.
Question 7 Explanation: 
The speed of a transverse wave can be obtained by dividing the distance traveled by the wave by the time taken. It is also the speed of the crest or the trough.
Question 8
The frequency of a wave is
A
the number of cycles made by the wave.
B
the time taken for one complete oscillation
C
the number of oscillations made in one second
D
the number of complete oscillations made in one minute
Question 8 Explanation: 
The frequency of a wave is defined as the number of complete oscillations made in 1 s.
Question 9
Which of the following is the unit for frequency?
A
ampere
B
tesla
C
meter per second
D
hertz
Question 9 Explanation: 
Unit of frequency is hertz (Hz). It means ‘oscillation per second’.
Question 10
Which of the following is the unit for frequency?
A
joule per second
B
coulomb per second
C
metre per second
D
oscillation per second
Question 10 Explanation: 
Unit of frequency is hertz (Hz). It means ‘oscillation per second’.
Question 11
The wavelength of a wave is
A
the distance from the start of a wave to the end of the wave.
B
the distance from a crest to another crest.
C
the distance from a crest to a trough.
D
The distance between successive troughs.
Question 11 Explanation: 
The wavelength of a wave is defined as the distance between successive crests (or troughs) of a wave. It is the length of a complete wave. Choice (B) is not the answer because it does not specify the adjacent crest. There are many possible answers for the distance of one crest to another.
Question 12
Which of the following is a possible unit for wavelength?
A
kilometer
B
hertz
C
coulomb
D
metre per second.
Question 12 Explanation: 
Unit of wavelength is meter (m) or any other units of length such as km, cm, mm, etc.
Question 13
The period of a wave is
A
the time taken for the wave to travel from one point to another.
B
the time taken for the wave to complete one oscillation.
C
the frequency of the wave multiply by the wavelength of the wave.
D
the distance divided by the speed of the wave.
Question 13 Explanation: 
The period of a wave is the time taken for the wave to complete one oscillation.
Question 14
Which of the following is a possible unit for period?
A
hertz
B
metre per second
C
second
D
metre
Question 14 Explanation: 
Unit of period is second (s) or any other units of time such as hour, min or year.
Question 15
The amplitude of a wave is
A
the time taken for a wave to complete one oscillation.
B
the length of a complete wave.
C
the maximum displacement of the particles from their rest positions.
D
the vertical distance from the crest and to the trough
Question 15 Explanation: 
The amplitude of a wave is defined by the maximum displacement of a particle (on the wave) from its rest position.
Question 16
Which of the following is a possible unit for amplitude?
A
hertz
B
metre per second
C
second
D
metre
Question 16 Explanation: 
Unit of amplitude is metre (m) or any other units of length such as km, cm, mm, etc.
Question 17
What is the period of the wave shown below? 17
A
2 s
B
4 s
C
5 s
D
8 s
Question 17 Explanation: 
The period of a wave is the time taken for the wave to complete one oscillation. The diagram showed 2 complete oscillations completed in 8 seconds. Time taken for 1 complete oscillation is therefore 4 s.
Question 18
What is the amplitude of the wave shown below? 18
A
4 s
B
5 cm
C
8 s
D
10 cm
Question 18 Explanation: 
The amplitude of a wave is defined by the maximum displacement of a particle (on the wave) from its rest position. The amplitude of the diagram shown is 5 cm.
Question 19
What is the frequency of the wave shown below? 19
A
1/8 Hz
B
¼ Hz
C
4 Hz
D
8 Hz
Question 19 Explanation: 
The frequency of a wave is defined as the number of complete oscillations made in 1 second. The relationship between frequency and period is: frequency = 1 / period. Period = 4 s Frequency = ¼ Hz.
Question 20
What is the wavelength of the wave shown below? 20
A
2 cm
B
4 cm
C
5 cm
D
cannot be determined
Question 20 Explanation: 
The wavelength of a wave cannot be determined by a displacement-time graph. The x-axis gives the information of time and not the length. The wavelength of a wave can be determined by a displacement-time graph or a displacement-distance graph.
Question 21
What is the wavelength of the wave shown below? 21
A
1 cm
B
2 cm
C
3 cm
D
4 cm
Question 21 Explanation: 
The wavelength of a wave is the length of one complete wave. The diagram shown below has two waves covering a distance of 4 cm. Length of the wave is therefore 2 cm.
Question 22
Given that the wave shown below has a frequency of 100 Hz, what is the speed of the wave? 22
A
5 cm/s
B
120 cm/s
C
2000 cm/s
D
4000 cm/s
Question 22 Explanation: 
C. Wavelength of a wave = 20 cm Frequency of a wave = 100 Hz Speed of wave v = fλ = 100/s x 20 cm = 2000 cm/s
Question 23
Given that the wave shown below has a frequency of 25 Hz, what is the speed of the wave? 23
A
0.1 m/s
B
10 m/s
C
100 m/s
D
200 m/s
Question 23 Explanation: 
Wavelength of a wave = 4 mm Frequency of a wave = 25 Hz Speed of wave v = fλ = 25/s x 4 mm = 100 mm/s or 0.1 m/s
Question 24
The displacement-time graph and displacement-distance graph of a particular wave is shown below. What is the speed of the wave? 24
A
2.5 m/s
B
5.0 m/s
C
10 m/s
D
80 m/s
Question 24 Explanation: 
Wavelength of a wave = 5 cm Period of wave = 2 s Frequency of wave f = 1 / period = ½ Hz Speed of wave v = fλ = 2.5 m/s
Question 25
The displacement-time graph and displacement-distance graph of a particular wave is shown below. What is the speed of the wave? 25
A
0.16 m/s
B
1.6 m/s
C
2.0 m/s
D
1000 m/s
Question 25 Explanation: 
Wavelength of a wave = 10 cm ÷ 2.5 = 4 cm = 0.04 m Period of wave = 100 ms ÷ 4 = 25 ms = 0.025 s Frequency of wave f = 1 / period = 1/0.025 Hz = 40 Hz Speed of wave v = fλ = 40 x (0.04) = 1.6 m/s
Question 26
Which of the following is/are longitudinal wave(s)?
  1. The sound produced by a bat
  2. The light from the sun
  3. The ripples on the surface of the water
A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1 and 3 only
Question 26 Explanation: 
All sound waves are longitudinal waves. All electromagnetic waves (emw) are transverse waves (light is one of the emw). Water ripples are transverse waves.
Question 27
Which of the following are true for both transverse wave and longitudinal wave?
  1. The waves carry energy from one point to another.
  2. The waves can be reflected.
  3. The waves need a medium to travel.
A
1 and 2 only
B
2 and 3 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2 and 3
Question 27 Explanation: 
Choice 1 and 2 are correct. All longitudinal waves need a medium to travel but not all transverse waves need a medium to travel. Examples of transverse waves that do not need a medium to travel are the electromagnetic waves.
Question 28
Planet A is 1020 m away from planet B. An alien on planet A observed that planet B exploded. When will it hear the explosion?
A
3.3 x 10^8 s later
B
3.3 x 10^1 s later
C
Immediately
D
Never
Question 28 Explanation: 
The alien can never hear the explosion because sound cannot travel through vacuum between the planets.
Question 29
The wavelength of a certain sound wave is 200 m long. Given that the speed of sound in air is approximately 300 m/s and the audible range of a normal person is 20 Hz to 20000 Hz, an observer who is standing 150 m away from the source of this sound wave hears
A
a loud and high pitch sound
B
a soft and low pitch sound
C
sound that is not able to determine the properties
D
nothing
Question 29 Explanation: 
Speed of sound in air is approximately 300 m/s. Wavelength of sound = 200 m Frequency of sound = speed ÷ wavelength = 1.5 Hz The frequency of the sound is below the audible frequency range of a normal person (20 Hz to 20,000 Hz). Nothing can be heard by the observer.
Question 30
A radio wave of wavelength 20 m long travels from position A (true line) to position B (dotted line) in a special medium as shown. Given that the frequency of this radio wave is approximately 1 x 107 Hz, what is the time taken for the wave to move from A to B? 30
A
3.3 x 10^-8 s
B
5.0 x 10^-8 s
C
6.6 x 10^-8 s
D
1.0 x 10^-7 s
Question 30 Explanation: 
Frequency of the radio wave = 1,00,00,000 Wavelength of the radio wave = 20 m Speed of the radio wave = fλ = 10000000 x 20 = 200000000 m/s Distance travelled by the wave = ½ x λ = 10 m Time taken = distance ÷ speed = 10 m ÷ 2 x 10^8 m/s = 5 x 10^-8 s
Question 31
The following figure shows the displacement of a particle within 40 ns. What will be the displacement of the particle when t = 70 ns? 31
A
-2 μm
B
0 μm
C
1 μm
D
2 μm
Question 31 Explanation: 
A wave pattern repeats every 20 ns. At 70 ns, the displacement of the wave will be at the same position as when the wave is at 10 ns.
Question 32
What is the frequency of the wave shown below? 32
A
20 MHz
B
25 MHz
C
40 MHz
D
50 MHz
Question 32 Explanation: 
Period of the wave T = 20 ns = 20 x 10^-9 s Frequency of the wave = 1/T = 50 MHz
Question 33
Water waves were produced in a ripple tank using a vibrator. The time taken for the vibrator to make 4 oscillations is 5 s. Which of the following values of speed and wavelength could the waves have?

 

Speed

Wavelength

A

2.4 cm/s

3.0 cm

B

1.2 cm/s

1.0 cm

C

6.0 cm/s

1.5 cm

D

12.0 cm/s

4.0 cm

A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Question 33 Explanation: 
Frequency of the wave = 4/5 = 0.8 Hz. Only choice A satisfy the equation v = fλ
Question 34
What is the period of the wave shown below? 34
A
10 ns
B
20 ns
C
40 ns
D
50 ns
Question 34 Explanation: 
Period of a wave is defined as the time taken for one complete oscillation. There are two oscillations shown. Time taken for one oscillation is 20 ns.
Question 35
What is the approximate amplitude of the wave shown below? 35
A
-5.0 μm
B
2.0 μm
C
4.0 μm
D
5.0 μm
Question 35 Explanation: 
Amplitude is defined by the maximum displacement of the wave. Displacement is a vector quantity and therefore has magnitude and direction. The maximum displacement of the wave is -5.0 μm.
Question 36
Water waves were produced in a ripple tank using a vibrator of frequency 4 Hz. Which of the following values of speed and wavelength could the waves have?

 

Speed

Wavelength

A

1.0 cm/s

3.0 cm

B

2.0 cm/s

1.0 cm

C

6.0 cm/s

1.5 cm

D

12.0 cm/s

4.0 cm

A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Question 36 Explanation: 
Frequency of the wave = 4 Hz. Only choice C’s combination of speed (6 cm/s) and wavelength (1.5 cm) and give frequency of 4 Hz (v = fλ).
Question 37
When the water flows from shallow water into deep water, how do the frequency, wavelength and speed change?
  Frequency Wavelength Speed
A no change decreases decreases
B no change no change decreases
C no change increases increases
D increases no change increases
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Question 37 Explanation: 
When water travels from shallow into deep region, the frictional effect from the water bed reduces (that is, the water bed is further from the wave). The speed and wavelength of the wave will thus increase. The frequency of the wave does not change when there is a change in medium. The frequency will change only when the source changes frequency.
Question 38
A vibrator dipping into water in a ripple tank has a period of 0.5 s. the resulting wave has a wavelength of 0.02 m. What is the speed of the wave?
A
0.01 m/s
B
0.04 m/s
C
0.05 m/s
D
25 m/s
Question 38 Explanation: 
v = fλ = 2 x 0.02 = 0.04 m/s
Question 39
Points P and Q are marked on a rope before it is set to oscillate. At the particular instance shown below, what is the direction of movement of point P and point Q? 39    

 

Point P

Point Q

A

up

down

B

down

up

C

up

up

D

down

down

A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Question 39 Explanation: 
As the transverse wave passes point P and point Q, point P and point Q will move up ans down perpendicular to the wave direction. The dotted wave shows the future new wave and P1 and Q1 are the new positions of point P and point Q after the wave moves a little more to the right.
Question 40
Which of the following could be the possible difference and similarity between a high-pitch sound and a low-pitch sound?
  Difference Similarity

A

speed

wavelength

B

wavelength

speed

C

wavelength

frequency

D

frequency

wavelength

A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Question 40 Explanation: 
The speed of sound in the same medium has the same speed. Based on v = fλ, the sound with a higher pitch will have a shorter wavelength and the sound with a lower pitch will have a longer wavelength.
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