Thermal Properties of Matter

Thermal Properties of Matter (O Level)

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Question 1
Liquid-in-glass thermometer operates based on
A
The expansion and contraction of liquid when there is a difference in temperature.
B
The expansion and contraction of liquid when there is a difference in thermal energy.
C
The change in conductivity of liquid under the influence of temperature.
D
The change in mass of liquid under the influence of temperature.
Question 1 Explanation: 
A temperature change in liquid will change its volume based on the theory of expansion and contraction. When a mass of liquid increases in temperature, the particles moves faster and push each other slightly apart. This causes expansion and therefore volume increased. Note that a thermometer works based on temperature difference and no the thermal energy.
Question 2
A cup is filled with 0.5 kg of water at a temperature of 50oC and a bath tub is filled with 50 kg of water at 30oC. Which of the following is false?
A
There is more thermal energy stored in the bathtub to the cup.
B
When placed together, heat will flow from the bathtub than in the cup.
C
There is more mass of water in the bath tub then in the cup.
D
The water in the cup has a higher temperature than the water in the bathtub.
Question 2 Explanation: 
The thermal energy stored in an object depends on its mass, material (specific heat capacity) and temperature. An object with high temperature may not have much thermal energy stored in it when its mass is small. Heat always flow from high temperature to low temperature just like water always flows from a high ground to low ground. The heat will flow from the 50oC water (in cup) to 30oC water (in bath tub).
Question 3
Three glasses of water of the same mass are placed side by side touching each other as shown. Given that the glass A is 30oC, glass B is 40oC and glass C is 50oC, which of the following is true? 3
A
Heat flows from glass A to glass B.
B
Heat flows from glass C to glass B and from glass B to glass A.
C
Heat flows in all direction.
D
Heat does not flow among these 3 glasses.
Question 3 Explanation: 
Heat always flow from high temperature to low temperature just like water always flows from a high ground to low ground. Heat doesn’t flow only when there is no difference in temperatures.
Question 4
Three glasses of water of the same temperature are placed side by side touching each other as shown. Given that the glass A contains 0.3 kg of water, glass B contains 0.5 kg of water and glass C contains 0.1 kg of water, which of the following is true? 4
A
Heat flows from glass A to glass B.
B
Heat flows from glass B to glass A and from glass B to glass C.
C
Heat flows in all direction.
D
Heat does not flow among these 3 glasses.
Question 4 Explanation: 
Heat always flow from high temperature to low temperature just like water always flows from a high ground to low ground. Heat doesn’t flow only when there is no difference in temperatures.
Question 5
When heated, which of the following shows in ascending order the magnitude of expansion of substances?
A
Solid, liquid, gas
B
Solid, gas, liquid
C
liquid, solid, gas
D
gas, liquid, Solid
Question 5 Explanation: 
Expansion is caused by slight increment in the space between every particle in an object. This distance is kept small by the intermolecular force between the particles. Solids have a strong intermolecular force, liquids have weak intermolecular force and gases have least intermolecular force. Therefore for the same amount of energy, it has least effect to pull the solid molecules away from each other than for liquid molecules. The pulling effect is greatest for gas molecules as they have negligible intermolecular force between their particles.
Question 6
Which of the following will show most expansion?
A
Heat 8 cm needle from 10oC to 1000oC
B
Heat 10 cm needle from 10oC to 1000oC
C
Heat a 285 mL glass of water from 1oC to 99oC
D
Heat a 1.5 L glass of water from 1oC to 99oC
Question 6 Explanation: 
Under the same increment of temperature, gas will expand most followed by liquid and solid. When two objects made from the same material are heated to increase to the same amount of temperature, the one with the higher mass will expand more because it has more spaces in between the particles to expand.
Question 7
A clinical thermometer is inserted into the mouth of a patient. Why does the doctor need to wait for about a minute before taking the thermometer out of the mouth to read the temperature?
A
To wait for the average temperature to be reached
B
To record the maximum temperature of the patient within that 1 minute
C
To allow time for the heat to flow into the mercury till the temperature of the mercury is the same as the temperature of the patient.
D
To wait for the temperature of the patient to cool down in the air-conditioned room.
Question 7 Explanation: 
Heat needs time to flow from the patient’s mouth to the thermometric liquid has the same temperature as the body temperature of the patient (when thermal equilibrium is reached). The thermometric liquid will expand almost linearly according to the increment, the higher will be the expansion.
Question 8
A solid substance is placed in a boiling tube and heated steadily. The temperature-time graph of the substance is as shown below. At which labeled point would the substance be a mixture of liquid and gas? 8
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Question 9
When ice changes into water at 0oC.
  1. Work is done in breaking the molecular structure of ice in solid state.
  2. Internal energy is increased.
  3. Energy is absorbed to raise the temperature.
A
1 only
B
2 only
C
1 and 2 only
D
1, 2 and 3
Question 9 Explanation: 
Internal energy is total energy of the substance that comprises the kinetic and potential energy of the molecules of the substance, or said to be the total energy of the substance. When a substance changes from solid to liquid state, heat enters the substance but there is no change in temperature. Work is done in breaking the molecular structure of solid state and which increases the potential energy. Since potential energy increases, the internal energy increases.
Question 10
During the process of melting,
A
the melting substance gains thermal energy and therefore increases its temperature.
B
the melting substance changes from a liquid to a solid.
C
there is no transfer of thermal energy and therefore the temperature of the substance remains constant.
D
the intermolecular force between the molecules of the substance becomes weaker.
Question 10 Explanation: 
During melting, heat enters the substance to break down the forces between the molecules and therefore the molecules move further away from each other.
Question 11
When steel melts,
A
the size of the molecules increases.
B
the space between the molecules increases.
C
the molecules vibrate at higher speed.
D
the density of each molecules decreases.
Question 11 Explanation: 
During melting, boiling, freezing or condensing, the temperature does not change and there is a state change in states. When the molecules gain or lose energy and start to move further away from or nearer to each other, it is undergoing a change in state.
Question 12
When steel increases its temperature,
A
the size of the molecules increases.
B
the space between the molecules increases.
C
the molecules vibrate at higher speed.
D
the density of each molecules decreases.
Question 12 Explanation: 
During increase of temperature, the molecules gain energy and start to vibrate faster, the temperature of steel increases due to more collisions between the molecules.
Question 13
What causes the steel to expand when it is being heated?
A
The increase in the size of the molecules
B
The increase in the mass of the molecules
C
The increase in the speed of the molecules
D
The decrease in the density of the molecules
Question 13 Explanation: 
During increase of temperature, the molecules gain energy and start to vibrate faster. They push each other slightly away and cause the object to increase in size.
Question 14
The diagram below shows the melting and boiling points of four different substances. Which substance is a solid at 0oC and a liquid at 1400oC? 14
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Question 14 Explanation: 
The lines represent the substances in liquid state. Left side of the line means the substance is in solid state and right side of the line means the substance is in gaseous state.
Question 15
A solid substance is placed in a boiling tube and heated steadily. The temperature-time graph of the substance is as shown below. At which portion is the substance absorbing latent heat? 15
A
PQ and QR only
B
RS and ST only
C
PQ and RS only
D
QR and ST only
Question 15 Explanation: 
When a substance is undergoing a change if state, it is absorbing latent heat. During the process, the temperature will remain constant. Portion QR and ST show that they are at constant temperature.
Question 16
Which of the following is NOT a difference between boiling and evaporation?
A
Evaporation is a slow process but boiling is a fast process.
B
Evaporation takes place at the surface of the liquid but boiling takes place throughout the liquid.
C
Evaporation takes place from 0oC to 100oC but boiling takes place only at the boiling point.
D
During boiling, bubbles are formed but not during evaporation.
Question 16 Explanation: 
Evaporation happens at all temperatures while the substance is in liquid state. Evaporation in the range of 0oC to 100oC is only for water.
Question 17
Which of the following is a difference between boiling and evaporation?
  1. Evaporation takes place at any temperature but boiling does not.
  2. Evaporation takes place at the surface of the liquid but boiling takes place throughout the liquid.
  3. The temperature of the liquid changes during evaporation but remains constant during boiling.
A
2 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2 and 3
Question 17 Explanation: 
D. Differences between boiling and evaporation Boiling Evaporation Quick process Slow process Bubbles formed Nothing visible happened Occurs throughout liquid Occurs at surface only Occurs at one temperature Occurs at all (Boiling point) temperatures Source of energy needed Energy supplied by surrounding temperature
Question 18
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
  1. Heat is defined as the energy which is transferred from one place to another due to a temperature difference between them.
  2. Heat will flow from one body of higher energy level to another of lower energy level.
  3. When an object has higher temperature its internal energy is higher than another object of lower temperature.
A
1 only
B
1 and 3 only
C
2 only
D
2 and 3 only
Question 18 Explanation: 
1. Heat is defined as the energy which is transferred from one place to another due to a temperature difference between them. (Correct) 2. Heat will flow from one body of higher energy level to another of lower energy level. (Incorrect) Heat will flow from one body of higher temperature to another of lower temperature. 3. When an object has higher temperature its internal energy is higher than another object of lower temperature. (Incorrect) Internal energy is the sum of molecular kinetic energy and potential energy. Although the temperature is a factor of internal energy, the mass of the body is also a factor. The internal energy of a big pool of water at 10oC will be much higher than the internal energy of a small cup of water at 90oC.
Question 19
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
  1. A body of higher mass has more internal energy than a body of lower mass.
  2. A body of higher temperature has more internal energy than a body of lower temperature.
  3. A body of higher specific heat capacity has more internal energy than a body of lower specific heat capacity.
A
1 only
B
2 only
C
3 only
D
none of the above
Question 19 Explanation: 
1. A body of higher mass has more internal energy than a body of lower mass. (Incorrect) Internal energy depends on all three: mass, temperature and specific heat capacity. An object of higher mass may not have higher internal energy as compared to another with higher temperature and higher specific heat capacity. 2. A body of higher temperature has more internal energy than a body of lower temperature. (Incorrect) Internal energy is the sum of molecular kinetic energy and potential energy of a body. Although the temperature is a factor that determines of internal energy, the mass of the body is also a factor. The internal energy of a big pool of water at 10oC will be much higher than the internal energy of a small cup of water at 90oC. 3. A body of higher specific heat capacity has more internal energy than a body of lower specific heat capacity. (Incorrect)
Question 20
Which of the following statements is/are always correct about two objects of the same material in thermal contact?
  1. Heat will flow from an object of higher temperature to an object of lower temperature.
  2. Heat will flow from an object at liquid state to an object at solid state.
  3. Heat will flow from an object of higher internal energy to an object of lower internal energy.
A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2 and 3
Question 20 Explanation: 
1. Heat will flow from an object of higher temperature to an object of lower temperature. (Correct) 2. Heat will flow from an object at liquid state to an object at solid state. (Incorrect) Heat will not flow at their melting point as both objects are at the same temperature. 3. Heat will flow from an object of higher internal energy to an object of lower internal energy. (Incorrect) Factors affecting the amount of internal energy are has factors such as mass, specific heat capacity and temperature. Objects with higher internal energy may not have higher temperature. Temperature is the factor that affects the direction of heat flow.
Question 21
Which of the following is true?
  1. An object of higher mass will have higher internal energy as compared to another object of lower mass. (Incorrect)
  2. An object of higher temperature will have higher internal energy as compared to another object of lower temperature. (Incorrect)
  3. Two different solid objects of the same mass and temperature will have the same internal energy. (Incorrect)
A
3 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1, 2 and 3 only
D
none of the above
Question 21 Explanation: 
1. An object of higher mass will have higher internal energy as compared to another object of lower mass. (Incorrect) Internal energy depends on all three: mass, temperature and specific heat capacity. An object of higher mass may not have higher internal energy as compared to another with higher temperature and higher specific heat capacity. 2. An object of higher temperature will have higher internal energy as compared to another object of lower temperature. (Incorrect) Internal energy depends on all three: mass, temperature and specific heat capacity. An object of higher mass may not have higher internal energy as compared to another with higher temperature and higher specific heat capacity. 3. Two different solid objects of the same mass and temperature will have the same internal energy. (Incorrect) It also needs to have the same specific heat capacity.
Question 22
1)       The table below shows the melting point and boiling point of three liquids.
  Melting point Boiling point
Alcohol -115oC 78oC
Mercury -39oC 357oC
Water 0oC 100oC
Which liquid is most suitable to be used in a thermometer for measuring a temperature range of -10oC to 95oC?
A
Alcohol only
B
Mercury only
C
Water only
D
None of the above
Question 22 Explanation: 
The liquid-in-glass thermometer can only work when the thermometric liquid is in its liquid state. Only mercury is in liquid state between -10oC to 95oC.
Question 23
A piece of ice is being heated to water and then to steam. Which of the following statements is true?
A
The molecules expand as it changes from ice to steam.
B
The molecules move faster as it changes from ice to steam.
C
The molecules move closer to each other as it changes from ice to steam.
D
The intermolecular force of attraction increases as ice changes to steam.
Question 23 Explanation: 
The speed of the particles in the substance increases as the temperature increases. A substance in its gaseous state must have a temperature higher than when it is in solid state. The speed of the particles in its gaseous state therefore must be higher than the speed of the substance in its solid state.
Question 24
As gas is being cooled to solid state. Its temperature will remain constant when the substance is
  1. condensing
  2. freezing
  3. at thermal equilibrium with the environment.
A
1 only
B
2 only
C
1 and 2 only
D
1, 2 and 3
Question 24 Explanation: 
When a substance is freezing, melting, boiling and condensing, the temperature will remain constant. Another possible situation to have temperature also remains constant is when thermal equilibrium is reached. Heat always flows from high temperature source to low temperature source. When both sources are at the same temperature, the heat will stop to flow and it is said that thermal equilibrium is reached.
Question 25
Mercury melts at -39oC and boils at 357oC. Alcohol melts at -115oC and boils at 78oC. At which temperature are both substances in liquid state.
A
- 49oC
B
- 15oC
C
100oC
D
360oC
Question 25 Explanation: 
-15oC is the only temperature between -39 oC to 357 oC and -115 oC to 78 oC.
Question 26
Why does the temperature of a liquid drop during evaporation?
A
Air takes away the thermal energy by conduction.
B
Air takes away the thermal energy by radiation.
C
The total energy drops due to liquid molecules escaping to the air as vapour.
D
The average energy drops due the escape of the higher energy molecules into the air as vapour.
Question 26 Explanation: 
The higher temperature water will always be at the top layer of the water because it is less dense. During evaporation the more energetic molecules (that make up water of higher temperature) at the surface of the liquid will evaporate into the air first. The remaining water molecules are less energetic and therefore have lower temperature. Temperature is a measure of the average thermal energy of a body and not the total thermal energy.
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